The rise of the West has long been the accepted doctrine for framing analyses of world history. Privileging a Eurocentric approach, this traditional paradigm obscures the significance of the indigenous rich in non-Western regions and fails to recognize the contributions of the Orient. In this book, Peter Gran seeks to reframe current historical debates, presenting a model of analysis based on the rise of the rich. Gran outlines the structure of this new paradigm, building upon metanarrative concepts from Marxism to liberalism. Rather than a history of clashing civilizations, he identifies a history of resolving conflicts through negotiations among the wealthy classes of various regions. Fundamental to his theory is evidence demonstrating the existence of non-European ruling classes with power in interregional affairs. Far-reaching in its historical scope, Gran's work lays the foundation for a critical rethinking of world history and offers a vital contribution to the field. 1. Language: English. Narrator: John Skinner. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/015390/bk_acx0_015390_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
New regionalism and world order: a long-term transatlantic rift? ab 58.99 € als Taschenbuch: Assessing the impact of the American and European diverging regionalisms and interregional strategies on the EU-US relationship. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Politikwissenschaft,
This study aims at highlighting the characteristics of the diverging EU-US "new-regional" and "interregional" policies, as well as their implications on the transatlantic relationship. The book focuses on the political and economical factors that might account for the EU/NAFTA institutionalisation gap and on the alternative world order models behind the EU and the US interregional strategies ("Pax Europaea" vs. "Pax Americana"). The problems overshadowing the transatlantic link in the post-Cold War international system are addressed through a specific question: will the spreading of the new regionalism favor or affect the building of a re-defined and balanced transatlantic partnership? The proposed answer implies that the EU and US respective regional and interregional policies are shaping a competitive transatlantic dynamics, which the EU can only face by increasing the coherence of its internal system of governance.
This book investigates a case of interregionalism, which has become a central concern in EU policy making. The EU relation to the South American regionalism project Mercosur is of special interest due to the failure of on-going negotiations regarding a free trade agreement between these two actors. Brazil, which is a rising power in the world and a hegemon in the region, is the only Mercosur member, which signed a strategic partnership with the EU. This tension between the interregional and bilateral level as a result of EU external trade policy will be analysed to evaluate its effect on Mercosur's integration process.
Supporting regional integration has become acornerstone of the European Union s relations with other regionalgroupings across the world. The policy has evolved considerably frommodest beginnings in the 1980s to increasing commitments in bothquantitative and qualitative terms in more recent years. This studyexamines the motivations that underpin this policy evolution,drawing on rich evidence from EU interregional relations withMercosur, the Andean Community and Central America. By carefully tracingEU support for regional integration from the 1980s until today,Tobias Lenz argues that the underlying policy motivations of relevant EUactors have shifted from considerations of geopolitics to ageoeconomic impetus. This development has been accompanied by andinteracted with a strategic rivalry with the United States. This studyis of interest to students of EU external relations and comparativeregionalism.
China's dynamic economic growth and the successful reforms significantly affected the self-esteem of the Chinese nation and its leadership. Beijing gradually has changed the very quality of its foreign policy and become more confident and purposeful. China safely gets out of the shadows, successfully contrasting Chinese Peaceful Rise or Development concepts to the China's threat theory, intensively promoting soft power policy and using public diplomacy. Moreover, Beijing offers the World its own initiatives or concepts like - Chinese Dream or Great Dream, Community of Common destiny, as well as the initiative of New Great Silk Road (NGSR) - "the Silk Road Economic Belt" and "the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road." The China's President Xi Jinping's NGSR is not only a mega-project designed to deepen Eurasian regional and interregional cooperation, it supports the ideas of building a "community with common destiny" and accepting "greater responsibility" that international community expects Beijing to take up. Chinese Dream may become an ideological basis to propose NGSR initiative that in its turn designed to contribute to the proliferation of the Chinese Dream in China and beyond.
The Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) is one of the earliest forums that put substance into the idea of cooperation between several regional organizations. Among the three core regions in the world: Europe, North America and East Asia, interregional arrangements have been developed in various forms. ASEM emerged in 1996, with an aim to strengthen the missing link in the triadic interregional relationship. ASEM s success in initiating dialogue and cooperation between Asia and EU in economic, political and social dimensions, reflected in a plethora of meetings, conferences, seminars and activities, has created its own challenges and expectations. The success of ASEM depends on both functional and cognitive changes in both regions. ASEM progress has been made in economic cooperation. In contrast, political and security dialogues have confirmed the different positions of members, though the Seoul meeting (2000), opened the potential for interregional political cooperation. Asymmetric progress between the two parties in regional integration shows that cognitive change cannot take place overnight. Therefore, for ASEM to flourish, both interregional and intraregional changes are required.
This study aims to investigate optimal water allocations and possible benefit gains from water trade and to identify respective efficient water prices. As South Africa is one of the many countries in the world experiencing water shortages, this research focuses on an extremely water scarce region in the north east of the country, the Middle Olifants sub-basin. The research area is characterized by inelastic water supply, increasing competition between users for scarce water resources and a poor water demand management, leading to an imbalance of water supply and demand. The South African government tries to overcome the problem and to increase social welfare by developing an integrated water resources management and improving water use efficiencies. This requires knowledge on current water demands and water values, price elasticities of water demand, possible impacts of different market allocation mechanisms as well as necessary economic instruments and institutional and political conditions.Accordingly, this study seeks to estimate water demands of the two production sectors irrigating agriculture and mining. Primary data on quantities and expenditures of production factors and information on yields are used to model water demands. Water demand in the mining sector is estimated with econometric methods using time series data. A seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) procedure is applied to estimate cost functions for the five mines analyzed and water price elasticities and water demand functions are calculated. Calculated water own price elasticities vary from -0.77 to -0.95 and together with cross price elasticities they show, that there is potential to influence water use patterns. Using the estimated cost functions, water demands can be derived by varying the water price holding all other inputs and output constant.In the agricultural sector water price/quantity schedules are simulated with an optimization model in GAMS, maximizing farm profits with varying water prices. Demand functions are obtained by fitting regression equations and point water price elasticities are calculated. At current water prices of 0.07 Rand/m3 elasticities are with around -0.2 far below unity implying that, in the agricultural sector rather institutional measurements than water pricing must be applied as a solution to water scarcity.The determined inverse water demand functions of the two sectors together with water supply figures represent the basic elements in the water allocation model, where benefits from water use are maximized. Three different scenarios are compared under two political settings. The first setting allows water use to remain with current quantities, and to exceed its sustainable use, whereas the second setting considers basic human as well as ecological needs to be given priority, which decreases available water supply for mines and farmers. The three scenarios modeled include (1) the status quo situation, (2) intraregional trade and (3) interregional trade. In the status quo situation water demands are fixed to current consumption levels and according benefits from water use are determined. In the second scenario, where trade between agriculture and mining is only allowed within catchments but not within the whole study area, new water use quantities with new equilibrium prices arise. By allocating water from low-value uses to high-value uses benefits are maximized and efficiencies of water use are improved. In the third scenario trade is allowed between all catchments in the study area, leading to one equilibrium price in the whole region of 0.084 and 1.819 respectively depending on water supply levels, dictated by the respective political condition. Compared to the second scenario where only intraregional trade is allowed, benefits from water use are further increasing through reallocation of water to the optimal allocation levels. Model results give necessary insights to sectoral water demands and economic aspects in the study area, and they can be of support in the decision-making of appropriate policies.
Cumulative global transformations, occurring daily, affect important aspects of our life. Characteristic cultural and natural heritage, including sites of priceless value, is under constant threat. There are growing pressures, of both natural and human origin, such as wars, con icts, natural or technological disasters and the effects of global climate change. These provoke the continuous degradation of many sites included in the World Heritage List. In consequence, immediate strategic measures must be taken. Natural heritage is our legacy from the past, that we inherited from our ancestors and pass on to future generations. It is vital to realize its value and protect it by all possible means, enforcing innovative and sustainable action plans that promote global international co-operation. This book aims to address speci c natural heritage sites in Europe, from West to East. The six countries of study interest are Portugal, Malta, Greece, Italy, Romania and Turkey. For each case, the corresponding current status is presented. This is accompanied by recommended action plans for protection and conservation, tra- ing initiatives that improve the public awareness of natural heritage issues and efforts to estimate the natural/environmental value of the sites. The book is the overall result of an interregional initiative aiming to promote convergence, provoke public interest and recommend action for radical changes in our attitude towards heritage conservation.