This book investigates a case of interregionalism, which has become a central concern in EU policy making. The EU relation to the South American regionalism project Mercosur is of special interest due to the failure of on-going negotiations regarding a free trade agreement between these two actors. Brazil, which is a rising power in the world and a hegemon in the region, is the only Mercosur member, which signed a strategic partnership with the EU. This tension between the interregional and bilateral level as a result of EU external trade policy will be analysed to evaluate its effect on Mercosur's integration process.
Supporting regional integration has become acornerstone of the European Union s relations with other regionalgroupings across the world. The policy has evolved considerably frommodest beginnings in the 1980s to increasing commitments in bothquantitative and qualitative terms in more recent years. This studyexamines the motivations that underpin this policy evolution,drawing on rich evidence from EU interregional relations withMercosur, the Andean Community and Central America. By carefully tracingEU support for regional integration from the 1980s until today,Tobias Lenz argues that the underlying policy motivations of relevant EUactors have shifted from considerations of geopolitics to ageoeconomic impetus. This development has been accompanied by andinteracted with a strategic rivalry with the United States. This studyis of interest to students of EU external relations and comparativeregionalism.
China's dynamic economic growth and the successful reforms significantly affected the self-esteem of the Chinese nation and its leadership. Beijing gradually has changed the very quality of its foreign policy and become more confident and purposeful. China safely gets out of the shadows, successfully contrasting Chinese Peaceful Rise or Development concepts to the China's threat theory, intensively promoting soft power policy and using public diplomacy. Moreover, Beijing offers the World its own initiatives or concepts like - Chinese Dream or Great Dream, Community of Common destiny, as well as the initiative of New Great Silk Road (NGSR) - "the Silk Road Economic Belt" and "the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road." The China's President Xi Jinping's NGSR is not only a mega-project designed to deepen Eurasian regional and interregional cooperation, it supports the ideas of building a "community with common destiny" and accepting "greater responsibility" that international community expects Beijing to take up. Chinese Dream may become an ideological basis to propose NGSR initiative that in its turn designed to contribute to the proliferation of the Chinese Dream in China and beyond.
With the creation of the EMU, member countries have abandoned their monetary policy sovereignty for the benefits of the Euro. Previously, output fluctuations between countries could automatically be absorbed by an adjustment of the relative exchange rate between the national economies. It is frequently argued that the loss of this channel must be compensated by an appropriate fiscal policy tool to avoid large and protracted regional swings in economic growth and unemployment. A fiscal federation could serve as a centralized insurance mechanism against idiosyncratic, transitory shocks among the member states. The paper establishes a framework for an interregional insurance mechanism and applies the methodology to a sample of EMU countries. The empirical results reveal the potential magnitude of insurance provided by a redistributive mechanism and allow conclusions as to whether a fiscal federation should be established in the EMU.
With the maturity of the EU as a regional andinternational actor, its role in the foreign policyrelations has acquired an individual form. Over thelast two decades, the EU has been usinginterregionalism as one of its foreign policy toolsto conduct its external policies in Asia, LatinAmerica, and Africa. This paper concentrates on theEU s interregional ties with Asia, examining theAsia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) process and the EU-ASEANpartnership. The primary question to be answered iswhether interregionalism is a viable foreign policytool to pursue the EU s external relations in Asia.Departing from this point, the paper argues that thesuccess of the interregional relations is very muchdependent on the level of integration of thecounterpart regions involved in the process.Moreover, the paper demonstrates that the growingregional cohesion of the ASEAN as a regionalorganization has huge impact on overall success ofthe interregional EU-ASEAN partnership, whilerelatively low productivity of the ASEM could be bestexplained by the lack of cohesion among the Asiancounterparts of the EU involved in the process.
Achieving balanced national development and reducing interregional socio-economic disparities is a comprehensive economic challenge. In this book, regional efficiency of Croatian counties is measured and compared over the three-year period (2005-2007) using Data Envelopment Analysis. Efficient counties are identified as benchmark members, while inefficient counties are analysed in detail to determine not only the sources but also the amounts of their inefficiency in each source. Proper longitudinal monitoring of development dynamics is enabled by the application of window analysis. In order to alleviate naturally, historically and politically conditioned unequal county positions that affect regional efficiency but over which economic policy makers do not have total control, categorical approach is used. Combined with window analysis, this approach changes relations among efficiency scores. By identifying regional disparity determinants, the results obtained using an improved Data Envelopment Analysis model should assist policy makers in formulating the most beneficial regional policy decisions.
With the wake of the global financial crisis since 2007, a large number of labor migrant have returned from China's industrial centers to their rural homes, thus aggravating countryside unemployment problems. The research presented in this book has explored the employment status and its major determinants for these return migrants, focusing on the case of Hunan Province. It finds out that age, child number, house owner-ship, training experience, working experience, saving, and membership in cooperatives are significant determinants of employment for returnees. However, voluntary unemployment exists among rural women and young people. The results illustrate considerable interregional differences in employment status and economic activity. By testing the neoclassi-cal labor market theory, the human capital theory, and the social capital theory the research also contributes theoretical aspects. Its findings help improve policy implications to promote employment in rural areas.
Multinational enterprises have become one of the distinctive institutions of our times. Controversy over their economic and political effects, and over appropriate public policy responses, has become common in home and host countries and in international agencies. Much of this debate is reminiscent of the role of large corporations generally, particularly in their interregional and intergroup effects. The multinational setting, however, would have raised distinctive issues even apart from the strong surges of nationalism and anti-imperialism which have marked recent history. Canada has a long and unusual experience with such enterprises. Foreign control of capital in the nonfinancial industries (manufacturing, petroleum and gas, other mining and smelting, utilities, merchandising) was already 20 percent in 1930 and 25 percent in 1948. It rose to 36 percent by the late 1960s, but has since receded to about 30 percent. In 1975, fully 55 percent of the capital in manufacturing was controlled outside Canada, as was 72 per cent of that in petroleum and gas, and 58 percent in other mining. These figures exceed those of other developed countries, although there have been striking increases in recent decades. About 80 percent of the direct invest ment capital in Canada is from the United States. Recently, Canadians have xi xii FOREWORD become aware of a surge of Canadian direct investment abroad, which on a flow basis has exceeded inflows (exclusive of retained earnings) for most of the 1970s.
National and European transport models become increasingly important. The broadening of national transport policy from strategic infrastructure investments to infrastructure management strengthens the need for advanced and more policy sensitive tools of analysis. The increase of interregional and international mobility requires forecasting tools that go beyond the urban or regional level. The competition for national infrastructure investments among regions and for Trans-European investments among nations has to be resolved by decisions and decision support systems at the appropriate spatial level. Environmental impacts transcend regional and national boundaries and transport policies affecting these environmental impacts involve all spatial levels. This volume presents the state of the art and prospects of a sample of the most advanced national and European transport models within a comparative framework.