The first part of this book is an introduction to the mathematical methods of modern nonlinear dynamics. It deals with differential equations, ordinary and partial, iterated maps, and bifurcation theory. The second part focuses applications to economics and regional science. Topics such as business cycles, oligopoly, interregional trade, and economic development theory are included. Bifurcation analysis, and studies of the various attractors, with their basins, provide the core, both of the background material and the applications. Coexistence of attractors and multiplicity of development paths are emphasized throughout. The chapters devoted to spatial applications focus the emergence of geographical patterns.
This study aims to investigate optimal water allocations and possible benefit gains from water trade and to identify respective efficient water prices. As South Africa is one of the many countries in the world experiencing water shortages, this research focuses on an extremely water scarce region in the north east of the country, the Middle Olifants sub-basin. The research area is characterized by inelastic water supply, increasing competition between users for scarce water resources and a poor water demand management, leading to an imbalance of water supply and demand. The South African government tries to overcome the problem and to increase social welfare by developing an integrated water resources management and improving water use efficiencies. This requires knowledge on current water demands and water values, price elasticities of water demand, possible impacts of different market allocation mechanisms as well as necessary economic instruments and institutional and political conditions.Accordingly, this study seeks to estimate water demands of the two production sectors irrigating agriculture and mining. Primary data on quantities and expenditures of production factors and information on yields are used to model water demands. Water demand in the mining sector is estimated with econometric methods using time series data. A seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) procedure is applied to estimate cost functions for the five mines analyzed and water price elasticities and water demand functions are calculated. Calculated water own price elasticities vary from -0.77 to -0.95 and together with cross price elasticities they show, that there is potential to influence water use patterns. Using the estimated cost functions, water demands can be derived by varying the water price holding all other inputs and output constant.In the agricultural sector water price/quantity schedules are simulated with an optimization model in GAMS, maximizing farm profits with varying water prices. Demand functions are obtained by fitting regression equations and point water price elasticities are calculated. At current water prices of 0.07 Rand/m3 elasticities are with around -0.2 far below unity implying that, in the agricultural sector rather institutional measurements than water pricing must be applied as a solution to water scarcity.The determined inverse water demand functions of the two sectors together with water supply figures represent the basic elements in the water allocation model, where benefits from water use are maximized. Three different scenarios are compared under two political settings. The first setting allows water use to remain with current quantities, and to exceed its sustainable use, whereas the second setting considers basic human as well as ecological needs to be given priority, which decreases available water supply for mines and farmers. The three scenarios modeled include (1) the status quo situation, (2) intraregional trade and (3) interregional trade. In the status quo situation water demands are fixed to current consumption levels and according benefits from water use are determined. In the second scenario, where trade between agriculture and mining is only allowed within catchments but not within the whole study area, new water use quantities with new equilibrium prices arise. By allocating water from low-value uses to high-value uses benefits are maximized and efficiencies of water use are improved. In the third scenario trade is allowed between all catchments in the study area, leading to one equilibrium price in the whole region of 0.084 and 1.819 respectively depending on water supply levels, dictated by the respective political condition. Compared to the second scenario where only intraregional trade is allowed, benefits from water use are further increasing through reallocation of water to the optimal allocation levels. Model results give necessary insights to sectoral water demands and economic aspects in the study area, and they can be of support in the decision-making of appropriate policies.
Macrosystems are systems in which the stochastic behaviour of the elements is transformed into deterministic behaviour of the system as a whole. This publication discusses equilibrium in these systems. Mathematical models of stationary states using the principle of maximum entropy are presented. This is developed and generalized for macrosystems with constrained resources. Parametric properties which characterize a model's response to data variations are discussed. The author has developed new computational methods for the computer-aided realization of stationary state models. Algorithms and computer experiments are evaluated. Mathematical modelling methods are applied to problems of hierarchical structures, interregional product exchange and image reconstruction.
This book connects scholars of divergent geographical areas and academic fields -- from archaeologists and anthropologists to art historians -- to show the significance of articles of regalia and of dressing and ornamenting people and objects among the Formative period cultures of ancient Mesoamerica and Central America. Documenting the elaborate practices of costume, adornment, and body modification in Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Oaxaca, the Soconusco region of southern Mesoamerica, the Gulf Coast Olmec region (Olman), and the Maya lowlands, this book demonstrates that adornment was used as a tool for communicating status, social relationships, power, gender, sexuality, behaviour, and political, ritual, and religious identities. Despite considerable formal and technological variation in clothing and ornamentation, the early indigenous cultures of these regions shared numerous practices, attitudes, and aesthetic interests. Contributors address technological development, manufacturing materials and methods, non-fabric ornamentation, symbolic dimensions, representational strategies, and clothing as evidence of interregional socio-political exchange. Focusing on an important period of cultural and artistic development through the lens of costuming and adornment, Wearing Culture will be of interest to scholars of pre-Hispanic and pre-Columbian studies. Contributors: Jeffrey Blomster, John Clark, Arlene Colman, Billie Follensbee, Katherine Faust, Caitlin Earley, Julia Guernsey, Guy Hepp, Ivy Hepp, John Hoopes, Rosemary Joyce, Matthew Looper, Whitney Lytle, Sophie Marchegay, Karen ODay, Kent Reilly, Laura Wingfield, Karon Winzenz
1 Econometric Approaches to Productivity Measurement: A Brief Overview.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Index of Total Factor Productivity.- 1.3 Total Factor Productivity versus Labor Productivity.- 1.4 Influence of Imported Intermediate Inputs on Productivity Measures.- 1.5 Frontier Functions.- 1.6 Productivity of Inputs Used, Elasticity of Substitution, and Economies of Scale.- 1.7 Final Remarks.- References.- 2 Intertemporal Changes in the Levels of Regional Labor Productivity in Canadian Manufacturing.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 A Conceptual Framework for Interregional and Intertemporal Productivity Comparisons.- 2.3 Interpreting Labor Productivity Growth.- 2.4 Trends in Labor Productivity.- 2.5 Labor Productivity in Two-Digit Regional Manufacturing Industries.- 2.6 Differences in the Levels of Labor Productivity.- 2.7 Labor Productivity Levels in Ontario and Quebec Two-Digit Industries.- 2.8 Summary.- References.- 3 Growth Accounting in an Open Economy.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Value Added.- 3.3 Deliveries to Final Demand.- 3.4 Aggregation over Sectors in an Open Economy.- 3.5 Conclusion.- References.- 4 A Comparison of Alternative Frontier Cost Function Specifications.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The Frontier Cost Function.- 4.3 Data and Estimation Procedures.- 4.4 Frontier Estimation Results.- 4.5 Conclusion.- Notes.- References.- Appendix to Chapter 4.- 5 A Factor Augmenting Approach for Studying Capital Measurement, Obsolescence, and the Recent Productivity Slowdown.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Explanations of the Recent Slowdown.- 5.3 The Trouble with Pollution and Energy.- 5.4 The Relevance of Technical Change Measures.- 5.5 Theory of Estimating Technical Change.- 5.6 The Cost Function.- 5.7 Technical Change Series.- 5.8 Data and Estimation.- 5.9 Results.- 5.10 Conclusions.- References.- 6 Simultaneous Estimation of Factor Substitution, Economies of Scale Productivity, and Non-Neutral Technical Change.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Specification.- 6.3 Functional Form.- 6.4 Estimation.- 6.5 Data.- 6.6 Empirical Results.- 6.7 Scale Effects.- 6.8 Changing Input Prices.- 6.9 Technological Change.- 6.10 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 7 Lie Group Methods and the Theory of Estimating Total Productivity.- 7.1 Introduction and Summary.- 7.2 Holotheticity and the Scale Effect: Lie Group Theory.- 7.3 Estimation Procedures.- 7.4 Estimation of the Scale Effect.- 7.5 The Lie Operator Technique for Estimating Productivity.- 7.6 The Effect of Technical Progress Represented by New Forms of the Production Function.- References.- Name Index.
This contributed volume applies spatial and space-time econometric methods to spatial interaction modeling. The first part of the book addresses general cutting-edge methodological questions in spatial econometric interaction modeling, which concern aspects such as coefficient interpretation, constrained estimation, and scale effects. The second part deals with technical solutions to particular estimation issues, such as intraregional flows, Bayesian PPML and VAR estimation. The final part presents a number of empirical applications, ranging from interregional tourism competition and domestic trade to space-time migration modeling and residential relocation.
This study concentrates on the Hellenistic and Roman periods in the history of Greek language. It focuses on the gradual contamination of classical dialects by the Hellenistic Koine, their disappearance, the range of intraregional variation, and the process of Koinization from the angle of interregional adjustments. The author draws on recent sociolinguistic methods dealing with lexical and social diffusion of linguistic change, statistical analysis, and research into bilingualism and diglossia.
Originally published in 1977. This book provides an introduction to some of the more important techniques of regional analysis - techniques derived from geographical, regional economic and regional science theory - and describes the way some of these techniques have been applied in the identification of problems, development of strategy and evaluation of regional programmes. The theory and applications of methods of regional analysis are integrated with the use of examples taken from the USA, the UK and Canada. The author introduces the problems which are encountered in the field of regional analysis, describes some of the analytical tools, beginning with the fundamental model of the economic base approach, and then examines regional flows and the applicability of international trade theory to interregional trade. Considering the shortcomings of the aggregated base approach, input-output analysis is also examined.